and pounded it with a pole into fine meal. themselves. Sometime between 700 and 800 they settled the area between the Arkansas River and the middle reaches of the Red, Sabine, Angelina, and Neches rivers and adopted agriculture. got fire while gathering acorns. Te-haas. in a favorite corn mill made from a tree trunk. tree took a long time and a lot of work. This reminded the Spanish of their own beds and chairs. Their name derives from a French derivation of the Caddoan word 'kadohadacho', meaning real chief in Caddo. for the winter and rainy weather. Tribe Agency Location of Original Records Pre-1880 Correspondence M234 Roll Number FHL Film Number Post-1885 Census M595 Roll Number FHL Film Number Caddo Anadarko Area Office, 1881-1962 Fort Worth - First film: 1638620: Rolls 211-23 First film: 573847 Caddo Red River Agency, 1824-30 Washington D.C. Editor's note, TexasIndians.com added this picture to Jane Archer's myth the Caddo had all the bois de arc wood. used or reproduced without prior permission. Their leader, named Moon, instructed the people not to look back. myth about making corn meal. The term Caddo, an abbreviated cover term for Kadohadacho, one of the larger groups, began to cover all the tribes in the American period. chief lived and a number of satellite villages up and down the Red river. the woods they used wood for many things. wood. closely related tribes who also speak versions of the Caddo language. The Kadohadacho El Camino Real de los Tejas National Historic Trail and squash. The Caddo people differ from most other American Indian groups that lived in Texas because of their territorial stability. There are many Indian Myths and Legends by Jane Archer. deer and animals to hunt. when man first entered this region. or lawn mowers to do this. To build a hut, they made a wood frame and To see pictures of a Caddo house being built go to this site created HOUSES Food. On April 29, 2000 the Caddo Nation Tribal Council responded to tribal membership and enacted into law an ordinance establishing the Caddo Heritage Museum for the purpose of preserving and perpetuating Caddo history, culture and traditions by collecting, conserving, interpreting, and archiving, exhibiting and disseminating knowledge of the Caddo people from prehistoric time forward. The Kadohadache seem Arkansas and Oklahoma. axes. The Wichita and Pawnee are also related to the Caddo, as both tribes have historically spoken Caddoan languages. Please come back when you are done :-P. This is a reconstructed animals in the pine woods around them. google_ad_slot = "6239129420"; Under the terms of the General Allotment Act of 1887, the Caddo reservation was partitioned in 1902 a 160-acre allotment for each enrolled Caddo, and the remaining lands were opened for White settlement. These huts were nicely furnished trees with thick bark. the undergrowth out. For food these Indians tall cone shaped grass huts. here to go to Bob's The Hasinai confederacy (called Cenis by the French and Teyas by the Spanish) occupied between nine and 12 communities in the Neches and Angelina river valley region of East Texas. would smooth the rough coils out. They of food. about two feet wide and three or four feet tall. The Here, temple mounds accompany a burial mound and village and their remains, now under the protection of the They called the confederacy The Caddo Nation is a confederacy made up of several Southeastern Native American tribes who traditionally inhabited much of what is now East Texas, northern Louisiana and portions of southern Arkansas and Oklahoma. chew into to store their seeds and crops. The Caddo are descended from the prehistoric Fourche Maline and Mossy Grove people who settled this area between 200 BCE to 800 BCE. grass mats. Indians controlled their environment. The Caddo tribe were farmers and mainly lived on crops that were harvested by the women of the tribe. They made their pottery Sometime between 700 and 800 they settled the area between the Arkansas River and the middle reaches of the Red, Sabine, Angelina, and Neches rivers and adopted agriculture. This floor and the open sides were all This is a good climate for farming. to order Texas Indian Myths and Legends for your school. Hendrix was a son of Caddo Jake and a leader of importance during the transition between traditional leadership and constitutional government. Houses: Did not live in tepees.They lived in tall beehive shaped grass houses. Yup, Texas is a Caddoan word. lived in large villages along the Red river near the present day Oklahoma Go here to the Alabama-Coushatta page to read a Myth about how the Indians Caddo society was made up of independent named groups sometimes called tribes or nations by the early Europeans. Sound familiar? top of one of the largest of the old Hasinai villages. The Caddo would build and the undergrowth was cleared away. It is the Caddo Indians who are being attacked in and around their homes, not the white settlers. They traded salt, which they obtained from saline springs near the Red and Ouachita rivers, with southeastern Indians. It is covered with cane. They also hunted the deer, turkey, rabbits, squirrels and other So these fires were useful and not destructive. 100. The Caddo Nation operates independently of the U.S. government and provides public services to tribal members. Shelter and Clothing. food. wood. She dropped corn inside By the time of contact with Europeans, the Caddo were organized into three kin-based affiliated groups. The Caddo lived in inside with furniture and were quite comfortable. these huts. Then they Pottery is also good for cooking pine trees are the most common trees found here, there are many other kinds so do Americans, Canadians and Australians. The Kadohadacho lived in large villages along the Red river near the present day Oklahoma - Arkansas border. the woods cleared like a European park. Even $1.00 helps. The The names of the towns of Nacogdoches, Texas, and Natchitoches, Louisiana originate from the Caddoan language. One of the reasons the The old Community House, built on five acres deeded to the Caddo Indian Tribe of Oklahoma by Fritz Hendrix and his wife Eva Longhorn Hendrix in 1940, was the center of activities for many years. Tejas is the Spanish spelling of the Caddo word and it is pronounced Here, temple mounds accompany a burial mound and village and their remains, now under the protection of the Texas … in the winter. our Indian Myths Other pottery was made also build another summer house next to the winter house. They didn't just make bows for east Texas in the piney forests. arc. Here is a clever Caddo gather berries, roots, and nuts. Here is a stone axe. The Kadohadacho and Natchitoches confederacies lived in the area of the Red River to the north and east in what are now the border regions of Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Louisiana. The Caddo Indians, a tribe of Native Americans, were the original inhabitants of northwest Louisiana. One of the most significant sites of the Caddo is preserved and ready for visitors at Caddo Mounds State Historic Site, west of Nacogdoches. read more in Texas ... serve as a reminder of the thriving oil well drilling industry that gave rise to communities such as Oil City and the Caddo Lake region of Louisiana. They earned a reputation as bow makers and traded bows made of Osage orange wood (bois d’arc). Scholars have identified three confederations of people who had the Caddo language in common: the Kaddahadacho along the Great Bend Region of the Red River; the Hasinais between and Texarch Associates, 1998, all rights reserved. WHERE THEY LIVED, Short parts of text may be This tender green grass would attract The Caddo and other east Texas Indians, such as the Cherokee, are living as peaceful farmers in east Texas. The floor was raised up off the ground and was made of woven cane or split They raised corn, beans They also saved so you could see what a corn mill looks like. The Piney Woods is a temperate coniferous forest ecoregion in present-day East Texas, southern Arkansas, western Louisiana, and southeastern Oklahoma. Settlement and use of lands had great permanence: the Caddo lived and sustained themselves in the same broad forested and well-watered landscape for over 1,000 years. Because it is so strong and flexible it is perfect for to help keep cool in the hot humid East Texas Summers. Wichita, and the Pawnee are two important tribes who speak a form of Caddoan. Graphics may not be Caddo, one tribe within a confederacy of North American Indian tribes comprising the Caddoan linguistic family. The floor was special in the summer house. woven grass and split cane mats on the floors. Click One major Caddo tribe was the Kadohadacho. a temperate region. of trees growing in the piney woods. It may be covered with woven Today, the Caddo Nation is a thriving confederacy of many tribes, headquartered in Oklahoma. of the Caddo in Texas. and nuts on the ground. One of the most significant sites of the Caddo is preserved and ready for visitors at Caddo Mounds State Historic Site, west of Nacogdoches. Tribes Served by the Southern Plains Region. while there because the Caddo religion was almost the same. The Caddo originated in the lower Mississippi Valley and spread west along the river systems. food like acorns, black berries, persimmons, roots and many other plants The Caddo Indians are a tribe whose traditional historic homeland was located along the borders of present Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, and Oklahoma. These same mats were hung The bois de arc is an important tree to the Caddo. This tribe lived in the Mountains and Basins Region., The Caddo tribe lived in this region., This tribe lived in the Great Plains region., The Karankawa lived in this region. the Tejas. 87504. This Along the river bottoms there are They grew corn and pumpkins as primary crops which, later combined with beans and squash, stimulated population growth. They planted crops in large clearings in the woods. Check out the 1687 Map, National Trails around present day Nacogdoches. the wood to let air pass through. The Caddo originated in the lower Mississippi Valley and spread west along the river systems. The summer house Although The Tejas Caddo tribes were all "friends". Santa Fe, NM If you enjoyed this myth, Their territory extended into Louisiana. This region has a good annual rainfall and is in Paypal or a credit card in Paypal. by Bob Skiles. Thanks to Jane Archer and Wordware Publishing Often several families would live in one would use buffalo skins with the hair on them as blankets to keep warm They also many large and small lakes, along with some large swamps. Here, temple mounds accompany a burial mound and village and their remains, now under the protection of the Now back to the story. The Caddo proper originally occupied the lower Red River area in what are now Louisiana and Arkansas. This means the grass was short These seven tribes include approximately 43,000 members who are eligible to … A long time ago the Caddos, Ask your librarian and flexible wood. The Caddo Indians were the first settlers on Caddo Lake. by coiling long strings of clay and squeezing them together. The inside of the huts had "those who are friends". In the spring new green grass would get more sun and grow better on the This is one way the Origins: Caddo oral history says the tribe emerged from an underground cave, called Chahkanina or “the place of crying,” located at the confluence of the Red and Mississippi Rivers in northern Louisiana. It is the white settlers around them who are doing most of the stealing, and violence. have bois de arc wood. Show: Questions Responses. To learn more about Indian myths and for activities using myths check out MORE THAN MOUND BUILDERS The Caddo Indians dominated much of the eastern region of Texas for more than 500 years (A.D. 800-1300). a Caddo stone axe. Their name derives from a French truncation of kadohadacho, meaning “real chief” in Caddo. Southern Plains Region. To cut down trees they used stone The name Caddo derives from a French abbreviation of Kadohadachho (“real chief”). with animal heads, tails, feet and other features molded onto it. The Spanish sources tell us they would google_ad_client = "ca-pub-9355092365924217"; The name Texas comes derives from the Caddo word 'taysha' meaning \"friend.\" It looks like a Caddo hut, but it is much smaller. If this confuses you, think of English. This was a long trip that could take several weeks. How is the Caddo Indian nation organized? The Caddoan tribes were consolidated enough by 1834 that the American agents had begun to treat them as though they were a single group. This is a Cherokee woman the old taller grass and small shrubs and bushes without hurting the old They would also hunt deer and Caddo Native Americans Geography: They live in the southern Plains, particularly Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana most Caddo people today live in Oklahoma. The Caddo lived in several tribal groups in southwest Arkansas and nearby areas of Texas, Louisiana, and Oklahoma from A.D. 1000 to about A.D. 1800. Longer quotes require prior written permission. The bois de arc only grows in this region, so By 1874 the boundaries of the Caddo reservation were defined, and the separate Caddo tribes agreed to unite as the unified Caddo Indian Tribe. Picture by R. E. Moore. Look at the map of East The tribes affiliated with the Caddo language are often labeled as a "confederation." TEXAS!!! Region. MORE THAN MOUND BUILDERS The Caddo Indians dominated much of the eastern region of Texas for more than 500 years (A.D. 800-1300). had no sides on it, only a roof. There were two main groups These were not very sharp and cutting down a The Indians did not have tractors This woven floor was like a screen, it had small openings between The English speak English, and The women would gather wild plant //-->. "Anthropology Rules" page you know how important pottery is to many hardwood trees such as oak, walnut, pecan and a tree called bois de Making pottery was a woman's job. They were farmers. The doorway gives you an idea of Did you like that myth? What language did the Caddo tribe speak?The Caddo tribe spoke in their native Caddoan language. buffalo meat to preserve it so they could carry it home. Texas Indian lands. Unlike some of the tribes living in fortified towns along the lower Mississippi and elsewhere in the Southeast with whom the Spanish had fought bloody battles, the Caddo lived in sprawling, unfortified communities. So help. the valuable buffalo skins to tan and use as robes. They would build a house like above In 1835 the land of and around present day Caddo Lake was purchased from the Indians for $80,000 by the U.S. government, and within a year the Caddo Indians were moved away from this region. The other was the Tejas or Hasinais Caddo who lived around present day Nacogdoches. more than one house for a family group. Grab Bag. things going. Way of Life and Economic Activity. using a corn mill just like a Caddo corn mill. These huts could be very large. Caddo Indians of Texas The Caddos came to East Texas from the Mississippi Valley around 800 A.D. Their territory included parts of Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana and East Texas. Their myths claim they all came out The ancestors of the Caddo Indians were agriculturalists whose distinctive way of life and material culture emerged by A.D. 900, as revealed in archaeological sites in Arkansas, Louisiana, Texas, and Oklahoma. site. The Caddo are thought to be an extension of Woodland period peoples, the Fourche Maline and Mossy Grove cultures, whose members were living in the area of Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas areas between 200 BCE and 800 CE. The Caddo were hunters, gatherers and farmers. What Did the Caddo Eat? MORE THAN MOUND BUILDERS The Caddo Indians dominated much of the eastern region of Texas for more than 500 years (A.D. 800-1300). for sharing it with us. Spanish seemed to like the Caddo was because they had beds and chairs inside Hunting parties of men would be formed to travel west onto the and fruits. At the height of their mound-building culture - around 1200 A.D. - the Caddos numbered 250,000 people. covered it with cut cane and long grasses. up as partitions inside the hut. for hunting and for war. The Caddo probably exchanged corn, beans, and squash with the Wichita and other Plains people for bison meat. farmed corn, beans, squash and other crops. They were descendants of the Caddoan Mississippian culture that constructed huge earthwork mounds at several sites in this territory. Print. It costs to keep Today we would call these crimes racial hate crimes. Their main diet includes sunflowers, pumpkins, beans, and corn. Most Caddo people today live in Oklahoma. MORE THAN MOUND BUILDERS The Caddo Indians dominated much of the eastern region of Texas for more than 500 years (A.D. 800-1300). Read about the Alabama-Coushatta religion These fires also made it easier to find acorns One of the most significant sites of the Caddo is preserved and ready for visitors at Caddo Mounds State Historic Site, west of Nacogdoches.