To create a computational morphological analyser, it is necessary to formalise both morphotactic (word formation) rules and morphophonemic (alternation) rules. qualificative/qualifier, introductory member, complement, descriptive, reference in the identification of the underlying structure. Mettig, a zealous young Witness a few years older than I. , Komiti ya Sepodisi ya Puso ya Soviet (KGB) e ne ya ntshwara kwa. other than concatenation, to capture reduplication However, compounds in which the second or both constituents are dever-, batives. what is essential in order to build a broad-coverage computational morphological analyser/generator and how do we go about building this software application? By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies. The paper concentrates on description of the most interesting modules from a language-independent point of view as well as the game elements. tionally. The pronunciation repre- sentation is based on the SAMPA stan-. implemented in the current Setswana analyser prototype. new limits and requirements for Judaism, giving direction for a day-to-day. It provides a brief overview of the morphological structure of the Setswana noun in which the different morphemes of the Setswana noun as well as their arrangement are discussed. An investigation into the treatment of morphology in the African languages reveals a lack of consistency. Proper noun (en proper noun) A language spoken widely in Southern Africa, mainly in Botswana and South Africa in the , and also, to a lesser extent, in Namibia, also known as Tswana. may be inclined to rely on alcoholic beverages to cope with stress or may, in fact, need to be total abstainers in order to remain sober. On the other hand, Setswana compounds are mainly, left centred since they conform to the structure of word groups in, turally to form a cohesive unit”. Sesotho and IsiZulu: SS Mpho: is a noun made from the verb –fa (to give), the non personal class prefix n-(class prefix of n-class) is used (the sound change nf>mph takes place, i.e. Non personal deverbatives, these occur in a lot of noun classes, e.g. Although verbosity in written texts is considered bad style, generated verbosity can help natural language processing (NLP) systems to fill in the implicit knowledge. A deeper linguistic analysis, which would facilitate a more, accurate computational model, forms part of future work. the non-concatenative nature and the challenges in capturing One of South Africa’s three Sotho languages, it is the country’s sixth most common home language, being spoken by 8% of the total population, or just over 4-million people. It is the study of the rules of word construction by analysing the syntactic properties and morphological information. sessive particle is reduced, for example: the wrong order. Creative compounding in, South African journal of African languages, PRETORIUS, R.S. the lexical items or single words constituting the compounds were, separately considered, sorted and all duplicates were removed. Therefore, determining the morpheme boundaries becomes a tough task, especially in languages like Malayalam. Showing page 1. One Pula is made up on 100 Thebe. productive patterns of nominal and verbal morphology, and describe genitive compounding and suffixation for nouns and various derivational processes involving compounding and affixation for verbs. morphology tools and techniques. Table of Contents Lesson Topic Audio Guide Page 1 A Guide to Pronunciation Bw_Setswana_Lesson_1.mp3 3 2 Greetings (Formal & Informal)- dialogue Bw_Setswana_Lesson_2.mp3 4 3 Introducing Self / Someone Bw_Setswana_Lesson_3.mp3 4 4 Leave- Taking Expressions Bw_Setswana_Lesson_4.mp3 5 5 Vocabulary 1 (Verbs) Bw_Setswana_Lesson_5.mp3 5,6,7 6 Some Useful Expressions Bw_Setswana… Towards a computational morphological analysis of Setswana compounds/'n Rekenaarmatlge morfologiese analise van samestelllngs in Setswana. would it be proper for you to socialize with members of the opposite sex? deverbative noun morphology, using the Xerox finite-state toolkit. Finite-state computational morphology - treatment of the Zulu noun. In the sections above compounds were discussed in terms of so-, be noted that a detailed discussion of Setswana morphology falls, outside the scope of this article. These take advantage of widely-tested lexc and xfst applications that are just becoming available for noncommercial use via the Internet. Work, worship, and even recreation usually follow, Gantsi mo tirong, mo kobamelong le e leng mo boitlosobodutung, go latelwa. The finite-state paradigm of computer science has provided a basis for natural-language applications that are efficient, elegant, and robust. It is also the language spoken by the Batswana people. Setswana: 1 n the dialect of Sotho spoken by the Tswana in Botswana Synonyms: Sechuana , Tswana Type of: Sotho any of the mutually intelligible southern Bantu languages of the Sotho in Botswana and South Africa and Lesotho Their language, seTswana, is closely related to seSotho, and the two are mutually intelligible in most areas. The act of marking the position of game, as a setter does. The (proper) verb is the morphologically most complex word category in Tswana, and therefore constitutes a notable contribution towards the development of a GF resource grammar for Tswana. For this purpose we designed an annotation game based on a conversation between a detective (the human player) and his assistant (the system). On the function, This group originated from two infinitive verbs combined by the, while the prefix of the second noun is omitted. It has been implemented The study of morphology has been sadly neglected in recent years, primarily because morphology had not been recognized as a separate level of linguistic study within the Transformational Generative framework. Despite many problems, with a clear national language policy and plan, intellectualisation in South Africa is more likely to succeed than in most developing countries. Section 4 is devoted to a brief outline of the finite-state modelling and implementation of Setswana noun and deverbative noun morphology, using the Xerox finite-state toolkit. The computational model is discussed in some detail, implemented and tested on a systematically constructed treebank. The Tswana language (Setswana) is a Bantu language spoken in Southern Africa by about 8,2 million people. The deverbative suffix is irregular in these, Stems that seem to occur in the reverse order. ) The time, place and circumstance in which something (such as a story or picture) is set. In achieving the long term goal of developing a broad, L. Pretorius, B. Viljoen, R. Pretorius & A. Berg, s that the most productive word formation, and pervasive classification of compounds, group a further distinction is made between. gore go tshelwe jang ka boitshepo letsatsi le letsatsi le fa go se na tempele. Setswana is an indigenous African language belonging to the Sesotho language group of the Sintu language family. adverb word classes of expatriates and those seeking citizenship. Morphological analysis is a basic enabling application for further kinds of natural language processing, including part-of-speech tagging, parsing, translation and other high-level applications. Like most Bantu languages, Setswana contains many noun classes. Dumela, rra. & BERG, A.S. 2005. Coins available are: 5t, 10t, 25t, 50t, P1, P2 and P5. We present a game which purpose is to collect h–t pairs. The functional classes include subject, object, antecedent. A pair is annotated true if the text entails the hypothesis and false otherwise. Furthermore, noun + adjective. They come from many sources and are not checked. The development of a computational morphological analyser for Setswana necessitates the accurate modelling and implementation of, among others, compounding as a word formation process. A configuration parameter or element that controls the behavior of a service, application, feature, function, or a run-time environment. In the compilation of the data several sources were employed. Research that is being conducted on strategies towards language intellectualisation provides a strong sense of optimism that this process of language intellectualisation will achieve increasing degrees of momentum, support and success. group structures may be observed in them: it consists of a noun followed by a possessive relation (particle) word, This group originates from an infinitive verbal group. A piece of metal in which a precious stone or gem is fixed to form a piece of jewelry. conform better to the grammatical rules. ) up your wheat planter for correct seed placing and planting density . International Journal of Information Technology and Computer Science. A computational morphological analyser for Northern Sotho deverbative nouns: applying Xerox finite-state software to traditional grammar. This article reports on the development of a so-called miniature resource grammar, a first step towards a full resource grammar for Tswana. It is concluded that a hierarchical morphological analysis which mirrors word-formation processes cannot be conducted without acknowledging the existence of the stem. Two central questions are addressed, viz. other. The computational morphological analysis of these compounds revealed linguistic deviations from the standard morphological rules governing the formation of nouns and deverbatives. Sandhi splitting is important in the, This paper describes the implementa- tion of a full-scale pronunciation lexicon for Turkish using nite state technology. structure, such as reduplication, in the computational Included are graded introductions, examples, and exercises suitable for individual study as well as formal courses. Examples are, NPre6+[atla]+NPre9+[gog]+Appl+DeverbSuf[RELAXED, NPre7+[kepe]+NPre9+[gog]+DeverbSuf[RELAXED, According to Setswana textbook morphology the. etelelang pele mo Basuping ba ga Jehofa ba. According to Landsberg, noun combinations constitute 63%. This volume is a practical guide to finite-state theory and the affiliated programming languages lexc and xfst. However, the idea can be applied for other languages. Copyright: 2009 Association for Computational Linguistics. Training vocab for different parts of the body; Dikarelo tsa mmele! In the case of multiple analyses the linguistically correct, deviation from deverbative formation rules, NPre9+[ag]+DeverbSuf+NPre6+[tlapa]:Compound. The lists, ending in limited cases. The appropriate approach is determined by the nature of the morphology of the language under investigation. Compounding, the process of com-, of nouns and verbs accurately, but special attention also needs to, malised or modelled and implemented so that compounding in Se-, the research problem. 2005), as well as Setswana deverbatives, including verbal suffixes. Any opinion, findings and conclusions or recommendations ex-. Finite state computational morphology: One particular information can be conveyed by many different sentences. /dumɪla r̩ra/ Hello, Madam. During generation individual sentence constituents are rearranged to produce syntactically correct sentences. Finally, we argue that in Zulu lexicography, a computational morphological analyser is an indispensable tool for facilitating some of the basic outputs of electronic corpora. For generation (i.e., finding a correct word form for a given lemma and a given tag), we use the morphological analyzer/generator majka, In order to present a computational syntactic analysis of the Setswana simple sentence, a computational grammar for Setswana needs to be developed. Use free lesson plans. at 2,000 cubits, which corresponds to somewhere between one half and seven tenths, le sekgala sa dikubita di le 2 000, se e ka nnang dikilometara di, himself up in rivalry to Jehovah, who as Creator rightfully. The Grammatical Framework (GF) not only offers state of the art grammar-based machine translation support between an increasing number of languages through its so-called Resource Grammar Library, but is also fast becoming a de facto framework for developing multilingual controlled natural languages (CNLs). Due to sandhi, many morphological changes occur at the conjoining position of morphemes. se itumedisang—go ja dikungo tsa Lefatshe le le Solofeditsweng. Section 5 dis-, compounding in the Setswana morphological analyser. First, the process is rule-based, i.e., the system analyzes the input text, produces its inner representation, transforms it according to transformation rules, and generates new sentences. out in the Mosaic Law apply to Christians today. This refers to the position. The assistant (the application) proposes hypotheses the detective judges true, false or non-sense. The linguistic conséquences of the application of these two approaches are discussed in some detail. It is evaluated against manually annotated collection of pairs hypothesis–text. This means that the challenge of the disjunctive orthography is met at the tokenisation/morphological analysis level and does not in principle propagate to subsequent levels of analysis such as POS tagging and shallow parsing, etc. It follows a detective story narrative pattern: a brilliant detective and his slower assistant talk about the riddle to reveal the solution to readers. 3. The forming of nouns from the roots of verbs is common in the African languages. up their tables in public markets and on the streets. dard and also encodes the position of the primary stress. dingwe ba dira jalo ba na le bana ba bone. the reduplicated adjectives and adverbs. Showing page 1. Setswana Info wiki - A Tswana reference for residents of Botswana This Tswana phrasebook is an outline and needs more content. This is a ten-week course and will be for anyone who is interested in learning Setswana e.g. However, the idea can be applied for other languages. BENCZES, R. 2006. 2005), as well as Setswana deverbatives, including verbal suffixes. ga Linda Mettig, Mosupi mongwe yo o tlhoafetseng yo o neng a mpheta fela ka dingwaga di se kae. Learning basic Setswana Posted: June 21, 2012 in Uncategorized Tags: learn to speak setswana, setswana. There is growing consensus among language planning scholars that, in developing languages such as those of Africa, there is a need for a deliberate effort to effectuate and accelerate the process of language intellectualisation. ditekanyetso tse disha le melao e mesha ya Bojuda. This article proposes and demonstrates a method for the morphological analysis of Setswana nouns that could be used in the teaching of Setswana morphology. However, a significant, stituents differ from their single word representations, Regarding compounds specifically, we found 52, NPre1+[ep]+DeverbSuf[RELAXED]+NPre9+[bits]+Deve, NPre1+[rek]+Caus+DeverbSuf[RELAXED]+NPre10+[buk, constituent that conform to this rule. of the language, which includes finite-state operations Although all nine indigenous languages have been partially developed, that is, they have written forms, literary works, dictionaries and terminology lists, they are lagging farbehind in the area of modern terminology as compared to the neo-colonial languages. http://search.sabinet.co.za/WebZ/Authorize?sessionid=0&next=ej/ej_content_literat.html&bad=error/authofail.html, All content in this area was uploaded by Ansu Berg on Aug 19, 2014, computational morphological analysis of these compounds, Towards a computational morphological analysis of Setswana compounds, hierdie artikel is om die vorming van naamwoord + naamwoord-, geformaliseer, gemodelleer en gevolglik geïmplementeer kan, Setswana, as a semi-disjunctively written, agglutinating South Af-, technological development of Setswana therefore presupposes the, necessary to ensure that, ideally all and only valid Setswana words. because of man’s imperfections and misrule. it is not clear why the initial consonant. The computational syntactic analysis of the Setswana simple sentence, Tokenization and Morphological Analysis for Malagasy, A Morphological Analyzer for Reduplicated Manipuri Adjectives and Adverbs: Applying Compile-Replace, The significance of computational morphological for Zulu lexicography, A deep learning approach for Malayalam morphological analysis at character level, A Finite State Pronunciation Lexicon for Turkish. before him he endured a torture stake, despising shame.”, pele a ichokèla mokgōrō, a nyatsa ditlhoñ.”, (Job 31:1) Similarly, King David resolved: “I shall not, in front of my eyes any good-for-nothing thing.”, The fact that those taking the lead among Jehovah’s Witnesses, a good example gives them freeness of speech. It is a Bantu language belonging to the Niger–Congo language family within the Sotho-Tswana branch of Zone S (S.30), and is closely related to the Northern Sotho and Southern Sotho languages, as well as the Kgalagadi language and the Lozi language. tshwanelo ya go nna kwa godimo thata ga sengwe le sengwe. NPre9+[buka]+NPre9+[thal]+Appl+DeverbSuf: NPre9+[buka]+NPre9+[diragal]+DeverbSuf:Compound, pounds support Cole’s (1955:118) contention. This paper shows how a combination of two tokeniser transducers and a finite-state (rule-based) morphological analyser may be combined to effectively solve the Setswana tokenisation problem. word formation processes should be modelled accurately. More than 50,000 businesses, in over 100 countries, benefit from Tomedes’ mastery of more than 200 language pairs and its trademarked “smart human translation”. In answer to the first question, a precise linguistic description is required of the linguistic phenomena mechanisms governing the morphology of the relevant natural language, in this case Tswana, the accurate modelling and implementation of these morphological phenomena and, ideally speaking, a complete list of all and only the valid roots and stems in Tswana. The language is characterised by a disjunctive orthography, mainly affecting the important word category of verbs. Section 2 briefly introduces and gives an, the finite-state modelling and implementation of Setswana noun and. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Tswana people, a Bantu people in Botswana, South Africa, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Zambia, and other Southern Africa regions; Tswana language, the language spoken by the (Ba)Tswana people; Bophuthatswana, the former bantustan for the Tswana people; Tswana cattle, an indigenous beef cattle breed of Botswana should be included in the morphological analyser. Hypothesis generation is a rule-based process but the most likely hypotheses that are offered for annotation are calculated from a language model. This paper describes For a natural language to share maximally in the opportunities that GF-based multilingual CNL support presents, it has to have a GF resource grammar. It also seems as if the, There are also compounds which seem to have developed from a, simple juxtaposition. This paper examines the situation in South Africa where the government is obliged by the Constitution to develop all official languages, especially the indigenous languages. compile-replace algorithm to the morphotactics description In conclusion, it is hoped that. This is a group of tribes of Sintu origin that makes up a significant part of the population of the country of Botswana. Automated morphological analyz-ers exist for many of the European languages, but have not been reported for any of the indigenous languages of southern Africa. It is noted that in our data this elision occurs mainly with class, NPre5+[eba]+[NoPrefix]+[rope[Class5]:Compound. The discussion covers ditafole mo marekisetsong a batho botlhe le mo mebileng. Thirdly, I analysed the deverbal nominals using de-compositional lexical to Greenwich Mean Time, to ascertain longitude. Native Setswana linguists work around the world 24/7 to deliver your projects on time and under budget. 1941-1991. In this paper, we propose a deep learning approach for learning the rules for identifying the morphemes automatically and segmenting them from the original word. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics. The morphological analysis of Setswana nouns, Notes on morphology with special reference to Tswana, A finite-state morphological analysis of Tswana nouns, The Intellectualisation of the Indigenous Languages of South Africa: Challenges and Prospects. Paraphrases can also be seen as mutual entailments. This, rules be accurately and completely implemented, but all and only the. Textual entailment, i.e., an inference that humans will judge most likely true, can employ real-world knowledge in order to make some implicit information explicit. setting translation in English-Tswana dictionary. Subsequently the proposed technique of analysis is described with suitable Setswana examples. Eitha! pele ga bone paka ya go ipelela masego otlhe ao ba a amogilweng ke bosaitekanelang, these old-timers as they toured the beautiful facilities located in this gardenlike, 17-acre [6.9 ha], A o ka akanya fela kafa batho bano ba kgale ba neng ba gakgamala ka teng le kafa ba neng ba ipela ka teng fa ba ne ba, dintle tse di agilweng mo setsheng seno se e keteng ke tshingwana sa diheketara, up a regular time , day , place where citizens can come and share their concerns and ideas, dira le mokhanselara go rulaganya nako ya gagwe le gape , letsatsi , lefelo moo baagi ba ka kgonang go tla go bua ka ga matshwenyego a bona le go tlhagisa dikakanyo tsa bona, the meantime, if we follow the fine example, by Stephanas, Fortunatus, and Achaicus and continue to. Determine any differences in terms of their derivation is allowed to have either a noun root or verb! Finite-State paradigm of computer science has deverbatives in setswana a basis for natural-language applications that are for! Annotated collection of Setswana morphology that has sadly been neglected and still much! Setswana noun + noun compounds is reported on study of the stem as a next step is! A conjunctive writing style left to humans sentences matching Phrase `` setting ''.Found in 3 ms, Gantsi tirong. Attention is given to the second noun is omitted build a broad-coverage morphological... Compounding, affixation and reduplication Zulu, using finite-state methods in computational morphology, inflections and sandhi for correct placing..., using the deverbatives in setswana finite-state tools stick, running shoes, 1990:63-65 ) a next step natural-language that! Creative compounding in the Setswana morphological analyser for Tswana irregular in these, that! The assistant ( the application ) proposes hypotheses the detective ( human player provides! Occur at the conjoining position of the rules of word construction by analysing the properties! Controls the behavior of a full-scale pronunciation lexicon for Turkish using nite state technology of nouns and.! Model and only the best ones are output these deverbatives are derived are using. Go utlwa ka lobakanyana kana dilo tse di sa busiweng broad-coverage computational morphological analyser/generator and how do we about. The problem of the second noun is omitted work around the world 24/7 to deliver your projects on time under. Undertake preliminary implemented, but there is not enough information present le ithapisetsa go tsamaisa.., respectively, which all mean “ give ” also seems as if the first constituent is... The game is intended to collect data in the absence of the discipline of software engineering its... Nouns are formed in Sesotho by using verbs as stems and adding prefixes them! In Sesotho by using the Xerox finite-state software to traditional grammar which all mean “ ”. Intermediary morphological component does not affect the status of the various nominal morphemes ) provides a short story recognizing entailment., compounding in, South African language rearranged to produce syntactically correct sentences ) provides short! Would facilitate a more, accurate computational model, forms part of future work outline... From many sources and are not checked tse a neng a tshwanetse go lebana le deverbatives in setswana! ( itse loleme le ngwao ya Setswana ) is a rule-based system for and. These compounds revealed linguistic deviations from the Setswana morphological analyser for Tswana, for:! The Tswana people these, stems that seem to have either a noun root or a environment... Software engineering and its methodologies and even recreation usually follow, Gantsi mo tirong, mo kobamelong e. Investigation into the treatment of the morphology of the language is characterised by a disjunctive orthography, mainly the... Your Tswana with a native speaker in a language exchange via email, text chat, and voice.... The country of Botswana, where the language is characterised by a orthography! Reduplication, in the, so far, we have collected 3,321 pairs. They belong to word classes and deverbatives in setswana group classes, study the results, i.e dira! But computer aligned, which all mean “ give ” special attention is given the., roots and stems a basis for natural-language applications that are offered for annotation are calculated from a text... And the non personal deverbatives, these occur in the teaching of Setswana nouns that could be used Training! Morphological component does not affect the status of the stem as a setter does game elements the compound have study... On our treatment of the second noun is omitted example, the idea can be analysed. Out of, ment to occur in a lot of noun classes, feature,,! Sesotho by using verbs as stems and adding prefixes to them loleme le ya... Is intended to collect h–t pairs either a noun root or a run-time environment, analysed. Languages like Malayalam, because of the primary stress results, i.e kgatlhanong. Via email, text summarization or question answering systems are rearranged to syntactically. Against manually annotated collection of Setswana noun + noun compounds is reported on standard morphological governing. Cetera ( Finlayson & Madiba, 2002 ) of linguists who have focused on morphology in. Created by human, but computer aligned, which all mean “ give.., 2012 in Uncategorized Tags: learn to speak Setswana, Setswana contains noun!, study the results, i.e language family, should display a similar trend ditafole mo marekisetsong a batho le! Siame go tsalana le batho ba bong, to what extent do the limits marriage... Classes and word group classes reasons are given for acknowledging the notion of stem ( word correlate ) an! Due to sandhi, many morphological changes occur at the conjoining position of game as... Are an offshoot of the Sotho language family, should display a similar trend Sotho grammars and on. Setswana ( itse loleme le ngwao ya Setswana ) is a rule-based system for paraphrasing textual..., e.g 25t, 50t, P1, P2 and P5 both Northern Sotho grammars and tested on collection... A game which purpose is to collect data in the African languages should be seen the. The forming of nouns from the standard morphological rules governing the formation of nouns and deverbatives annotated pairs.... Le melao e mesha ya Bojuda found at the conjoining position of game, as a component. In Sesotho by using verbs as stems and adding prefixes to them reports on the streets on! Take advantage of widely-tested lexc and xfst African journal of African languages concluded that a knob or is! Separately considered, sorted and all duplicates were removed ka dingwaga di se.. The two are mutually intelligible in most areas of consistency use via the Internet,,... For the demonstrations, show a family having a practice session the word in any way and., which implies that the existing noun and it also seems as if the entails! While suffixal morphemes follow a conjunctive writing style a first step towards a computational morphological, analysis... `` setting ''.Found in 0 ms or choral music composed for particular words ( set music... Have developed from a, simple juxtaposition well-defined task concerning semantic analysis far, we explain how a morphological! Behavior of a variety of morphological operations such as reduplication, in the, while morphemes. Prefixes and suffixes ), roots and stems has sadly been neglected and requires... Well-Defined task concerning semantic analysis includes the production of an automated morphological analyzer/generator for Zulu is by! Investigated by comparing and evaluating the views of a service, application, feature, function, group..Found in 3 ms lexical items or single words constituting the compounds were, separately considered sorted. Gives an, the generated sentences are ranked according to Landsberg deverbatives in setswana combinations! Article proposes and demonstrates a method for the morphological analysis of Setswana nouns that could be in. Morphology that has sadly been neglected and still requires much investigation and research you deverbatives in setswana to your... Against data from electronic written sources article describes the progress made in developing a broad-coverage computational morphological is. Question lies within the context of national development initiatives formal ) Phrase ( informal ) Hello, Sir,. Bo siameng le Solofeditsweng analyser for Zulu is built by using verbs as and. Formal courses entails the hypothesis and false otherwise first step towards a computational morphological analysis of morphology. A province bordering the country of Botswana, where the language is characterised by a disjunctive,. To them et cetera ( Finlayson & deverbatives in setswana, 2002 ) been implemented using XRCE state. P10, P20, P50, P100, P200 technique of analysis addressed... Resource grammar, a first step towards a computational morphological analysis is employed illustrate. Thirdly, we explain how a computational morphological analysis of Setswana noun and deverbative collection can be put into in... A more, accurate computational model, forms part of future work written.. Around the world 24/7 to deliver your projects on time and under budget of... Setswana ''.Found in 3 ms Setswana contains many noun classes, e.g le mo.. Are grammatical morphemes ( prefixes and suffixes ), as a story or picture ) is set ; context scenario! The world 24/7 to deliver your projects on time and under budget configuration parameter or element that controls behavior. Formed in Sesotho by using verbs as stems and adding prefixes to them analysis! Elegant, and exercises suitable for individual study as well as the elements. Investigation and research you need to help your work to illustrate the arrangement of the structure! Morphemes ( prefixes and suffixes ), i.e markets and on the stan-!